Heart failure (HF), often used to mean chronic heart failure (CHF), occurs when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the needs of the body. The terms congestive heart failure (CHF) or congestive cardiac failure (CCF) are often used interchangeably with chronic heart failure. Symptoms commonly include shortness of breath, excessive tiredness, and leg swelling. The shortness of breath is usually worse with exercise, when lying down, and at night while sleeping. There is often a limitation on the amount of exercise people can perform, even when well treated.
Nursing Intervention ForHeart Failure
- Assess cardiovascular status, vital sign and hemodynamic variable to detect signs of reduced cardiac output.
- Assess respiratory status to detect increasing fluid in the lungs and respiratory failure.
- Keep the client in semi-fowler's position to increase chest expansion and improve ventilation.
- Administer medication as prescribed, to enhance cardiac performance and reduce excess fluids.
- Administer oxygen to enhance arterial oxygenation.
- Measure and record intake and output, Intake greater than output may indicated fluid retention.
- Monitor laboratory test result to detect electrolyte imbalances, renal failure, and impaired cardiac circulation.
- Provide suctioning, if necessary assist with turning and encourage coughing and deep breathing to prevent pulmonary complication.
- Restrict oral fluid to avoid worsening the client's condition.
- Weigh the client daily to detect fluid retention. A weight gain of 2lb (0,9 kg) in 1 day or 5 lb (2,3 kg) in 1 week indicates fluid gain.
- Measure and record the client's abdominal girth. An increased in abdominal girht suggests worsening fluid retention and right-sided heart failure.
- Make sure the client maintains a low-sodium diet to reduce fluid accumulation.
- Encourage the client to express feelings, such as a fear of dying to reduce anxiety.